************************************************************************************* :f:mod:spral_ssmfe_core - Sparse Symmetric Matrix-Free Eigensolver (Core Algorithm) ************************************************************************************* .. f:module:: spral_ssmfe_core :synopsis: Sparse Symmetric Matrix-Free Eigensolver (Core Algorithm) ======= Purpose ======= This package computes extreme (leftmost and/or rightmost) eigenpairs :math:\{\lambda_i, x_i\} of the following eigenvalue problems: - the standard eigenvalue problem .. math:: A x = \lambda x, - the generalized eigenvalue problem .. math:: A x = \lambda B x, - the eigenvalue problem .. math:: AB x = \lambda x where :math:A and :math:B are **real symmetric** (or **Hermitian**) matrices and :math:B is **positive definite**. The modules :f:mod:spral_ssmfe and :f:mod:spral_ssmfe_expert provide a simplified interface to this routine, and should be used if the user does not require access to low level features provided in this package. Major version history --------------------- 2014-11-20 Version 1.0.0 Initial release ============== Usage overview ============== :f:mod:spral_ssmfe_core implements a block iterative algorithm for simultaneous computation of several eigenpairs for the problems above. The block nature of this algorithm allows the user to benefit from highly optimized linear algebra subroutines and from the ubiquitous multicore architecture of modern computers. It also makes this algorithm more reliable than Krylov-based algorithms employed by e.g. ARPACK in the presence of clustered eigenvalues. However, convergence of the iterations may be slow if the density of the spectrum is high. Thus, good performance (in terms of speed) is contingent on the following two factors: i. the number of desired eigenpairs must be substantial (e.g. not fewer than the number of CPU cores), and ii. the employment of a convergence acceleration technique. The acceleration techniques that can be used are shift-and-invert and preconditioning. The former rewrites the eigenvalue problem for a matrix :math:M as :math:Ax = \lambda x with :math:A = (M - \sigma I)^{-1}, where :math:I is the identity matrix and :math:\sigma is a real value near eigenvalues of interest, and the generalized problem :math:M x = \mu B x as the :math:Ax = \lambda B x with :math:A = (M - \sigma B)^{-1}. The latter applies to the case of positive definite :math:A and requires a matrix or an operator :math:T, called *a preconditioner*, such that the vector :math:v = T f is an approximation to the solution :math:u of the system :math:A u = f (see the simple example :ref:below ). Note: This technique is only recommended for experienced users. For futher detail on the algorithm, see the outline in the :ref:method section  below, and associated references. The routine :f:mod:spral_ssmfe provides a user-friendly interface to this algorithm, whilst :f:mod:spral_ssmfe_expert provides an interface that allows users to manage their own memory. If this routine is used instead of :f:mod:spral_ssmfe_expert, the user is additionally responsible for deciding when a ufficient number of eigenpairs have been computed to sufficient accuracy. The amount of computation performed by the solver subroutines in this package and the memory they use are negligible. These features facilitate the use of these subroutines for shared-memory, out-of-core and hybrid computation. =========== Subroutines =========== To use the solver procedures, the user must maintain a workspace of (kw+1) blocks each containing m vectors of size n. For notational convienience we refer to this workspace as a Fortran array W(n,m,0:kw), but the user is free to store it as they wish. Note the block dimension is indexed from zero, not from one. The following table provides minimum values of kw for each setup: +-------------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ | | minAprod=T | minAprod=F | +-------------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ | Problem | minBprod=T | minBprod=F | minBprod=T | minBprod=F | +===================+============+============+============+============+ | standard | 7 | 5 | 3 | 3 | +-------------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ | standard_shift | 7 | 5 | N/A | N/A | +-------------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ | generalized | 7 | 5 | 5 | 3 | +-------------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ | generalized_shift | 7 | 7 | N/A | N/A | +-------------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ | buckling | 7 | 7 | N/A | N/A | +-------------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+ Further, the user must also store the converged eigenvectors :math:X, and (for generalised problems) their :math:B-images :math:BX using separate storage, e.g. X(n,mep), BX(n,mep). In addition to being output, the routine may need to reorthagonalise against these from time to time. The first (zero-indexed) block holds the eigenvector approximations: the user must fill this block with :math:m linearly independent vectors before the first call to a solver procedure. The number of desired eigenpairs may exceed :math:m: whenever converged eigenpairs have been detected, a solver procedure reports the indices of these eigenpairs and they must be moved by the user to separate storage (X(:)). .. f:subroutine:: ssmfe(rci,problem,left,right,m,lambda,rr,ind,keep,options,inform) Computes specified number of leftmost and rightmost eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors. Uses reverse-communication. Upon return the user must perform a task specified by the rci parameter and recall the routine. Possible values of rci and associated tasks are: +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | rci%job| Task to be performed | +==========+===============================================================+ | -3 | None. Fatal error, see inform%flag. | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | -2 | Failed to converge, see inform%flag. | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | -1 | None. Computation complete. | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ |  1 | Calculate :math:\bar{V} = AU. | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 2 | Apply preconditioner :math:\bar{V} = TU. (Copy if T=I). | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 3 | Compute :math:\bar{V} = BU | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 4 | Test convergence for each of :math:m eigenvalues: | | | | | | * If eigenpair i has converged, set inform%converged(i) to | | | a positive number. | | | * Otherwise, leave at current value. | | | | | | Tests may use the estimated eigenvalue errors | | | inform%err_lambda(i) and eigenvector errors | | | inform%err_x(i). | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 5 | Copy converged eigenvectors :math:X to user storage: | | | | | | * If rci%i>0: W(:,rci%jx:rci%jx+rci%nx-1,rci%kx). | | | * Else: W(:,rci%jx-rci%nx+1:rci%jx,rci%kx). | | | | | | Optionally save their :math:B-images (if :math:B\ne I) | | | | | | * If rci%i>0: W(:,rci%jx:rci%jx+rci%nx-1,rci%ky). | | | * Else: W(:,rci%jx-rci%nx+1:rci%jx,rci%ky). | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 11 | If rci%i.eq.0, copy :math:\bar{V} = U. | | | | | | Otherwise, reorder columns of block rci%kx such that column | | | ind(j) becomes the new column j for j=1, ..., rci%nx | | | | | | Note: if rci%kx.eq.rci%ky, only reorder once. | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 12 | Compute the dot products | | | | | | .. math:: r_{ii} = U_i \cdot \bar{V}_i | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 13 | Perform the scalings | | | | | | .. math:: U_i = U_i/\sqrt{(U_i\cdot \bar{V}_i)} | | | | | | and | | | | | | .. math:: \bar{V}_i = \bar{V}_i/\sqrt{(U_i\cdot \bar{V}_i)} | | | | | | for each column :math:U_i and :math:\bar{V}_i of :math:U| | | and :math:\bar{V}. | | | | | | Note: if rci%kx.eq.rci%ky, only scale once. | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 14 | Perform the updates | | | | | | .. math:: \bar{V}_i = \bar{V}_i + r_{ii} U_i | | | | | | for each column :math:\bar{V}_i of :math:\bar{V} | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 15 | Perform the update | | | | | | .. math:: R = \alpha U^T V + \beta R | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 16 | Perform the update | | | | | | .. math:: V = \alpha U R + \beta V | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 17 | Perform the update | | | | | | .. math:: U = \alpha U R | | | | | | Note: :math:V may be used as a workspace | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 21 | :math:B-orthogonalize columns of :math:V to all vectors | | | :math:X by solving | | | | | | .. math:: (X^TBX) Q = X^T \bar{V} | | | | | | for :math:Q and updating | | | | | | .. math:: | | | | | | U & = & U - XQ \\ | | | | | | If :math:B\ne I, the :\math:\bar{V} must also be updated | | | as | | | | | | .. math:: | | | | | | \bar{V} & = & \bar{V} - BXQ, | | | | | | or | | | | | | .. math:: \bar{V} = BU | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 22 | :math:B-orthogonalize columns of :math:U to all vectors | | | :math:X by solving | | | | | | .. math:: (X^TBX) Q = X^T U | | | | | | for :math:Q and updating | | | | | | .. math:: U = U - BXQ | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ | 999 | Restart: | | | | | | If rci%k>0: Restart suggested with block size | | | m >= rci%nx + rci%i + rci%j, adjusting workspace size | | | to match. Set rci%i=0 and rci%j=0 and recall the routine. | | | If a restart is not desirable, routine may be recalled with | | | no change to parameters. | | | | | | If rci%k=0: Restart required with the same block size. | | | | | | In both cases, the first block W(:,:,0) should retain | | | vectors rci%jx:rci%jx+rci%nx-1, filling remaining vectors | | | randomly such that the entire set of columns is linearly | | | independent from each other and also from the converged | | | eigenvectors. | +----------+---------------------------------------------------------------+ The matrices are defined as follows: * :math:U = W(:, rci%jx:rci%jx+rci%nx-1, rci%kx) * :math:V = W(:, rci%jy:rci%jy+rci%ny-1, rci%ky) * :math:\bar{V} = W(:, rci%jy:rci%jy+rci%nx-1, rci%ky) * :math:R = rr(rci%i:rci%i+rci%nx-1, rci%j:rci%j+rci%ny-1, rci%k) and :math:\alpha and :math:\beta are given by rci%alpha and rci%beta respectively. We use the notation :math:r_{ii} to refer to the :math:i-th diagonal element of :math:R, being rr(rci%i+i-1,rci%j+i-1,rci%k). :p ssmfe_rcid rci [inout]: Reverse communication type. rci%job must be set to 0 before the first call. (Type :f:type:ssmfe_rciz in complex version). :p integer problem [in]: Problem to be solved, one of: +----+-----------------------+ | 0 | :math:Ax=\lambda x | +----+-----------------------+ | >0 | :math:Ax=\lambda Bx | +----+-----------------------+ | <0 | :math:ABx=\lambda x | +----+-----------------------+ :p integer left [in]: Number of left eigenpairs to find. On return with rci%job=5, can be set to zero if sufficient have been found. :p integer right [in]: Number of right eigenpairs to find. On return with rci%job=5, can be set to zero if sufficient have been found. :p real lambda (m) [inout]: Current eigenvalue estimates in ascending order. :p integer m [in]: Block size of workspace W. Must be at least 2. :p real rr (2*m,2*m,3) [inout]: reverse communication workspace. (Type complex in complex version). :p integer ind (m) [inout]: reverse communication workspace. :p ssmfe_core_keep keep [inout]: Internal workspace used by routine. :p ssmfe_core_options options [in]: specifies algorithm options to be used. :p ssmfe_inform inform [inout]: returns information about the exection of the routine. .. f:subroutine:: ssmfe_largest(rci,problem,nep,m,lambda,rr,ind,keep,options,inform) Computes specified number of eigenvalues of largest magnitude and corresponding eigenvectors. Uses reverse-communication. Upon return the user must perform a task specified by the rci parameter and recall the routine. Possible values of rci and associated tasks are as for :f:subr:ssmfe() above. :p ssmfe_rcid rci [inout]: Reverse communication type. rci%job must be set to 0 before the first call. (Type :f:type:ssmfe_rciz in complex version). :p integer problem [in]: Problem to be solved, one of: +----+-----------------------+ | 0 | :math:Ax=\lambda x | +----+-----------------------+ | >0 | :math:Ax=\lambda Bx | +----+-----------------------+ | <0 | :math:ABx=\lambda x | +----+-----------------------+ :p integer nep [in]: Number of eigenpairs to find. :p real lambda (m) [inout]: Current eigenvalue estimates in ascending order. :p integer m [in]: Block size of workspace W. Must be at least 2. :p real rr (2*m,2*m,3) [inout]: reverse communication workspace. (Type complex in complex version). :p integer ind (m) [inout]: reverse communication workspace. :p ssmfe_core_keep keep [inout]: Internal workspace used by routine. :p ssmfe_core_options options [in]: specifies algorithm options to be used. :p ssmfe_inform inform [inout]: returns information about the exection of the routine. .. f:subroutine:: ssmfe_free([keep,inform]) Free memory allocated in keep and inform. Unnecessary if both are going out of scope. :o ssmfe_expert_keep keep [inout]: Workspace to be freed. :o ssmfe_inform inform [inout]: Information type to be freed. ============= Derived types ============= .. f:type:: ssmfe_core_options Options that control the algorithm. :f integer err_est [default=2]: error estimation scheme, one of: +-------------+---------------------------------------------------------+ | 1 | Residual error bounds: modified Davis-Kahan estimate for| | | eigenvector error and Lehmann bounds for eigenvale error| | | (see method section). | +-------------+---------------------------------------------------------+ | 2 (default) | Convergence curve-based estimate. | +-------------+---------------------------------------------------------+ :f integer extra_left [default=0]: number of extra approximate eigenvectors corresponding to leftmost eigenvalues used to enhance convergence. :f integer extra_right [default=0]: number of extra approximate eigenvectors corresponding to rightmost eigenvalues used to enhance convergence. :f logical minAprod [default=.true.]: If true, minimize number of multiplications with :math:A by requiring 2 additional blocks of memory for the workspace W(:,:,:). If false, three returns with rci%job=1 occur per iteration instead of one. Must be true if problem < 0. :f logical minBprod [default=.true.]: If true, minimize number of multiplications with :math:B by requiring 2 additional blocks of memory for the workspace W(:,:,:). If false, at least three returns with rci%job=3 occur per iteration instead of one. :f real min_gap [default=0.0]: Restart sensitivity: if the relative distance between the last eigenvalue of interest on either margin of the spectrum and the rest of the spectrum is smaller than min_gap, the solver procedure suggests restart (rci%job=999). The values rci%i and rci%j are set to the numbers of eigenvalues on the left and right margin of the spectrum that are too close to the eigenvalues of interest, causing slow convergence. The default value of 0.0 means no restart is ever suggested. Must be in the range :math:[0.0,1.0]. :f real cf_max[default=1.0]: Stagnation sensitivity: if the value :math:q_{ij} (see method section) is greater than cf_max for :math:i > 5, the eigenpair is marked as stagnated by setting inform%converged(j) to a negative value. The default value of 1.0 indicates that the estimated asymptotic convergence factor is not used for stagnation detection. Must be in the range :math:[0.5, 1.0]. .. f:type:: ssmfe_infrom Information on progress of the algorithm. :f integer converged (mep) [allocatable]: Convergence status. * If converged(j)>0, the eigenpair (lambda(j), X(j)) converged on iteration converged(j). * If converged(j)=0, the eigenpair (lambda(j), X(j)) is still converging. * If converged(j)<0, the eigenpair (lambda(j), X(j)) stagnated at iteration converged(j). :f real err_lambda (mep) [allocatable]: estimated eigenvalue errors for converged and stagnated eigenvalues. :f real err_x (mep) [allocatable]: estimated eigenvector errors for converged and stagnated eigenvectors. :f integer flag: return status of algorithm. See table below. :f integer iteration: number of iterations. :f real residual_norms (mep) [allocatable]: Euclidean norms of residuals for (lambda(:), X(:)) on return with rci%job=4, 5. :f integer stat: allocation status in event of failure +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | inform%flag| | +==============+===========================================================+ | -1 | m is out-of-range. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | -2 | rci%job is out-of-range. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | -3 | options%err_est is out-of-range. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ |  -4 | options%minAprod is incompatible with selected routine. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ |  -5 | options%extra_left or options%extra_right is out-of-range.| +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ |   -6 | options%min_gap is out-of-range. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ |   -7 | options%cf_max is out-of-range. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | -11 | left is out-of-range (:f:subr:ssmfe) or | | | nep is out-of-range (:f:subr:ssmfe_largest). | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | -12 | right is out-of-range. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | -100 | Not enough memory; inform%stat contains the value of the| | | Fortran stat parameter. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | -200 | :math:B is not positive definite or user_x>0 and | | | linearly dependent initial guesses were supplied. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ | +1 | The iterations have been terminated because no further | | | improvement in accuracy is possible (this may happen if | | | :math:B or the preconditioner is not positive definite, | | | or if the components of the residual vectors are so small | | | that the round-off errors make them essentially random). | | | The value of inform%non_converged is set to the number | | | of non-converged eigenpairs. | +--------------+-----------------------------------------------------------+ .. _ssmfe_core_example: ======== Examples ======== Preconditioning example ----------------------- The following code computes the 5 leftmost eigenpairs of the matrix :math:A of order 100 that approximates the two-dimensional Laplacian operator on a 20-by-20 grid. One forward and one backward Gauss-Seidel update are used for preconditioning, which halves the number of iterations compared with solving the same problem without preconditioning. The module laplace2d (examples/Fortran/ssmfe/laplace2d.f90) supplies the subroutine apply_laplacian() that multiplies a block of vectors by :math:A, and the subroutine apply_gauss_seidel_step() that computes :math:y = T x for a block of vectors :math:x by applying one forward and one backward update of the Gauss-Seidel method to the system :math:A y = x. .. literalinclude:: ../../examples/Fortran/ssmfe/precond_core.f90 :language: Fortran This code produces the following output: :: 5 eigenpairs converged in 72 iterations lambda(1) = 4.4676695E-02 lambda(2) = 1.1119274E-01 lambda(3) = 1.1119274E-01 lambda(4) = 1.7770878E-01 lambda(5) = 2.2040061E-01 .. _ssmfe_core_method: ====== Method ====== The algorithm ------------- The algorithm implemented by :f:subr:ssmfe() and :f:subrssmfe_largest() is based on the Jacobi-conjugate preconditioned gradients (JCPG) method. The outline of the algorithm, assuming for simplicity that :math:0 < left \le m and :math:right = 0 and using Matlab notation, is as follows. - **Initialization.** Perform the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in the trial subspace spanned by the columns of an :math:{\tt n} \times {\tt m} matrix :math:X i.e. compute - :math:L = X’*A*X, if problem >= 0, and :math:L = X’*B*A*B*X otherwise, - :math:M = X’*B*X (:math:B=I if problem = 0), and solve the generalized eigenvalue problem for the matrix pencil :math:L - t*M, i.e. compute an :math:m\times m matrix :math:Q such that :math:Q’*M*Q is the identity matrix and :math:D = Q’*L*Q is a diagonal matrix. Compute :math:X = X*Q and set :math:Z = F = []. - **Main loop.** DO #. If problem>=0, compute the residual matrix :math:R = A*X - B*X*D, where :math:D is a diagonal matrix with entries .. math:: D(j,j) = \frac{X(:,j)'*A*X(:,j)}{X(:,j)'*B*X(:,j)} else compute :math:R = A*B*X - X*D, where :math:D is a diagonal matrix with entries .. math:: D(j,j) = \frac{X(:,j)'*B*A*B*X(:,j)}{X(:,j)'*B*X(:,j)}. #. Perform the orthogonalization of :math:R to constraints :math:C by updating :math:R = R - B*C*(C’*R). #. If options%err_est= 1, compute :math:R’*B*R and use it to compute error bounds; otherwise only compute the diagonal of this matrix and use to compute error bounds. Test for converged eigenpairs and move converged eigenvectors from :math:X to :math:C and reduce :math:m accordingly. Exit the main loop if :math:X = []. #. If problem is non-negative, compute the preconditioned gradient matrix :math:Y = T*R. #. If :math:Z is not empty, conjugate :math:Y to :math:Z, i.e. a. if problem is non-negative, then compute :math:P = Z’*A*Y, otherwise compute :math:P = Z’*B*A*B*Y; b. compute :math:S = Z’*B*Y; c. update :math:Y = Y + Z*H, where .. math:: H(i,j) = \frac{P(i,j) - S(i,j)*D(j,j)}{F(i,i) - D(j,j)} where :math:F is described in the final step below.. #. Perform orthogonalization of the search direction matrix :math:Y to constraints :math:C by updating :math:Y = Y - C*(C’*B*Y). #. :math:B-normalize the columns of :math:Y and reorder them so that the :math:B-norm of the projection of :math:Y(:,j) onto the linear span of :math:X and :math:Y(:,1:j-1) is an increasing function of :math:j. Compute :math:M = [X Y]’*B*[X Y]. If the condition number of :math:M is greater than the allowed limit of :math:10^4 then start removing the last columns of :math:Y and :math:M and respective rows of :math:M until the condition number falls below the limit. #. Perform the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure in the linear span of columns of :math:[X Y]. Update :math:X by selecting Ritz vectors corresponding to the leftmost :math:m Ritz values, and place the remaining Ritz vectors into :math:Z and corresponding Ritz values onto the diagonal of :math:F. END DO The orthogonalization to constraints on step 2 ensures that the algorithm deals with the residuals for the constrained problem rather than with those for the unconstrained one, which may not go to zeros if the constraints are not close enough to exact eigenvectors. The definition of :math:H(i,j) in step 5c ensures optimality of the new search direction vector :math:Y(:,j), notably, the search for the minimum of the Rayleigh quotient :math:D(j,j) in the direction of this vector produces the asymptotically smallest possible value. The search directions cleanup procedure employed on step 7 ensures that the convergence of iterations is not damaged by the computational errors of the LAPACK eigensolver _SYGV, in the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure of step 8. The accuracy of _SYGV is affected by the condition number of :math:M. If the latter is very large, poor accuracy in the computed Ritz vectors may lead to convergence failure. The ordering of :math:Y(:,j) ensures that the ‘least important’ search direction is dropped if the condition number of :math:M is unacceptably large. In practice, the loss of search direction is rare and does not lead to convergence problems. If the number of sought eigenpairs exceeds :math:m, then :math:m is not reduced on step 3. Instead, the approximate eigenvectors moved to :math:C are replaced with vectors from :math:Z. Error estimation ---------------- Standard problem ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ If options%err_est = 1, the error estimates for the eigenvalues are based on the eigenvalues of a matrix of the form .. math:: \hat A = \tilde\Lambda_k - S_k^T S_k, where :math:\tilde\Lambda_k is a diagonal matrix with the :math:k-1 leftmost Ritz values :math:\tilde\lambda_j on the diagonal, and the columns of :math:S_k are the respective residual vectors :math:r_j = A \tilde x_j - \tilde\lambda_j \tilde x_j divided by :math:\sqrt{\lambda_k - \tilde\lambda_j}. If :math:k is such that :math:\tilde\lambda_{k-1} < \lambda_k, then the eigenvalues of :math:\hat A are the left-hand side bounds for eigenvalues :math:\lambda_i, and thus the difference :math:\tilde\lambda_j - \hat\lambda_j estimates the eigenvalue error :math:\tilde\lambda_j - \lambda_j. The unknown :math:\lambda_k is replaced by :math:\tilde\lambda_k, and select the maximal :math:k \le m for which the distance between :math:\tilde\lambda_{k-1} and :math:\tilde\lambda_k exceeds the sum of the absolute error tolerance for eigenvalues and the Frobenius norm of the matrix formed by the residuals :math:r_j, j = 1,\ldots,k-1. If :math:\tilde\lambda_j - \hat\lambda_j is close to the machine accuracy, it may be too polluted by round-off errors to rely upon. In such case, we use instead .. math:: \tilde\lambda_j - \lambda_j \le \delta_j \approx \frac{\|r_j\|^2}{\tilde\lambda_k - \lambda_j}. The eigenvector errors are estimated based on the Davis-Kahan inequality: .. math:: \min_{x \in \mathcal{X}_{k-1}} \sin\{\tilde x_j; x\} \le \frac{\|r_j\|}{\lambda_k - \tilde\lambda_j} \approx \frac{\|r_j\|}{\tilde\lambda_k - \tilde\lambda_j}, where :math:\mathcal{X}_{k-1} is the invariant subspace corresponding to :math:k-1 leftmost eigenvalues. If options%err_est = 2 the errors are estimated based on the eigenvalue decrements history, which produces an estimate for the asymptotic convergence facotr, the geometrical average of the eigenvalue error reduction per iteration: .. math:: q_{ij} = \left| \frac{\lambda_j^i - \lambda_j^{i-1}} {\lambda_j^i - \lambda_j^0} \right|^{\frac{1}{i}} \approx\left| \frac{\lambda_j - \lambda_j^{i-1}} {\lambda_j - \lambda_j^0} \right|^{\frac{1}{i}} = \left| \frac{\lambda_j - \lambda_j^{i-1}} {\lambda_j - \lambda_j^{i-2}} \cdots \frac{\lambda_j - \lambda_j^1} {\lambda_j - \lambda_j^0} \right|^{\frac{1}{i}} where :math:\lambda_j^i is the approximation to :math:\lambda_j on :math:i-th iteration (see Technical Report [1]_ for further details). Unlike the residual estimates mentioned in this section, such ‘kinematic’ error estimates are not guaranteed to be upper bounds for the actual errors. However, the numerical tests have demonstrated that kinematic error estimates are significantly more accurate, i.e. closer to the actual error, than the residual-based estimates. Furthermore, they straightforwardly apply to the generalized case as well. Generalized problems ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ In the case of the generalized eigenvalue problem , all of the residual norms in the previous section must be replaced with :math:\|\cdot\|_{B^{-1}}-norm of the residual :math:r_j = A \tilde x_j - \tilde\lambda_j B \tilde x_j (:math:\|r_j\|_{B^{-1}}^2 = r_j^* B^{-1} r_j) or its upper estimate, e.g. :math:\beta_1^{-1/2}\|\cdot\|, where :math:\beta_1 is the smallest eigenvalue of :math:B. Hence, if :math:\beta_1 is known, then the error tolerances for eigenvalues and eigenvectors must be multiplied by :math:\beta_1 and :math:\sqrt{\beta_1} respectively. If no estimate for :math:\|\cdot\|_{B^{-1}}-norm is available, then the use of non-zero residual tolerances and options%err_est = 1 is not recommended. In the case of problem , the residuals are computed as :math:r_j = A B \tilde x_j - \tilde \lambda_j \tilde x_j, :math:B-norms of :math:r_j are used in and , and Lehmann matrix becomes :math:\hat A = \tilde\Lambda_k - S_k^T B\ S_k. References ---------- .. [1] E. E. Ovtchinnikov and J. Reid (2010). *A preconditioned block conjugate gradient algorithm for computing extreme eigenpairs of symmetric and Hermitian problems*. Technical Report RAL-TR-2010-19. .. [2] E. E. Ovtchinnikov (2008). *Jacobi correction equation, line search and conjugate gradients in Hermitian eigenvalue computation I: Computing an extreme eigenvalue*. SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 46:2567–2592. .. [3] E. E. Ovtchinnikov (2008). *Jacobi correction equation, line search and conjugate gradients in Hermitian eigenvalue computation II: Computing several extreme eigenvalues*. SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 46:2593–2619.